Terrestrial Environment

Terrestrial Environment

Terrestrial Environment



Qatar is a peninsula country, an off-shoot from the Eastern Arabian Peninsula. It covers an area of 11,581 Km2, with 563 Km of coastline, a 60-km land border to Saudi Arabia and sea borders in the Arabian Gulf with Bahrain, Iran, and UAE.

Climatically, Qatar is a hot, hyper-arid desert indicated by its Aridity Index of 0.03. This score out of a maximum of 1, is suggestive of low rainfall (average annual 76.3 mm) and high evaporation rates (average 6 mm per day), in addition to high temperatures which can reach to more than 50 C in summertime. Al Shamal sand storms contribute to the high evaporation rates as well. Another extreme that characterizes this desert country, is the high Global Horizontal Irradiance that can reach a yearly total of 2,020 KW/m2, compared to 1,000 KW/m2 of northern Denmark for example. Average rainfall and GHI create a dichotomy between North and South, being higher in the north, while the rocky hill range along the Qatar anticline splits the country into East and West.

Qatar, as all the Arabian deserts, is a shield-carbonate platform type, where ancient mountains or hills are surrounded by sloping erosional plains and aeolian (windblown) sands. The underlying geology, is a very significant determinant of landforms or ecosystems that develop on the surface and paint the landscapes with a pallet of black and brown tones, white, green, yellow and even pink and purple. In turn, each ecosystem supports an often-distinct community of organisms, both migratory and resident, whose shared feature is a set of behavioral and physiological adaptations to the drastic daily fluctuations of desert extremes. In general, life follows the rain, giving the desert a starkly different appearance with the blooming greenery and buzzing activity of newborns in the winter, contrasted with the cracked earth browns and limited diurnal activity of summers.

On an east-to-west transect, usually, sand dunes boarder the coast, followed by sequences of raised rocky desert alternating with low-lying widyan, rawdat and sinkholes, ending in rocky hills which border with the coast to the west. Of course, ecosystem boundaries are not squarely delineated, and different arrangements may be observed depending on location.

© A. D. Chatziefthimiou

Sources:
Batanouny KH, 1981
Whitford W, 2001
Edgell HS, 2006
Norton J et al, 2008
Leblanc J, 2013


Jebels - Rocky Hills - Mesas

Jebels - Rocky Hills - Mesas

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Rocky Desert or Hamada

Rocky Desert or Hamada

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Wadi and Runnel

Wadi and Runnel

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Rawdat and Sinkhole - Caves

Rawdat and Sinkhole - Caves

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Sand Dunes

Sand Dunes

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Bluethroat

Bluethroat

Luscinia svecica

Bunting, Rustic

Bunting, Rustic

Emberiza rustica

Buzzard, Steppe

Buzzard, Steppe

Buteo buteo vulpinus

Falcon, Amur

Falcon, Amur

Falco amurensis

Falcon, Barbary

Falcon, Barbary

Falco (penegrinus) pelegrinoides

Falcon, Saker

Falcon, Saker

Falco cherrug

Hypocolius

Hypocolius

Hypocolius ampelinus

Kite, Black-winged

Kite, Black-winged

Elanus caeruleus

Lark, Greater Short-toed

Lark, Greater Short-toed

Calandrella branchdatyla

Lark, Lesser Short-toed

Lark, Lesser Short-toed

Callendrella rufescens

Owl, Long-eared

Owl, Long-eared

Asio otus

Pipit, Richard’s

Pipit, Richard’s

Anthus (novaeseelandiae) richardi

Pipit, Water

Pipit, Water

Anthus spinoletta

Robin, European

Robin, European

Erithacus rubecula

Sparrowhawk, Levant

Sparrowhawk, Levant

Accipiter brevipes

Starling, Common

Starling, Common

Sturnus vulgaris

Stonechat, European

Stonechat, European

Saxicola rubicola

Stork, Black

Stork, Black

Ciconia nigra

Thrush, Red-throated

Thrush, Red-throated

Turdus ruficollis

Vulture, Egyptian

Vulture, Egyptian

Neophron percnopterus

Warbler, Sykes’s

Warbler, Sykes’s

Iduna rama

Wheatear, Desert

Wheatear, Desert

Oenanthe deserti

Wheatear, Eastern Mourning

Wheatear, Eastern Mourning

Oenanthe lugens

Wheatear, Kurdistan

Wheatear, Kurdistan

Oenanthe xanthoprymna

Ostrich, North African Red-necked

Ostrich, North African Red-necked

Struthio camelus camelus

Sparrow, Yellow-throated

Sparrow, Yellow-throated

Gymnoris xanthocollis

Warbler, Paddyfield

Warbler, Paddyfield

Acrocephalus agricola

Crane, Common

Crane, Common

Grus grus

Finch, Desert

Finch, Desert

Rodospiza obsoleta

Mallard

Mallard

Anas platyrhynchos

Warbler, Yellow-browed

Warbler, Yellow-browed

Phylloscopus inornatus

Stork, Yellow-billed

Stork, Yellow-billed

Mycteria ibis

Wheatear, White-crowned

Wheatear, White-crowned

Oenanthe leucopyga

Tit, Eurasian Penduline

Tit, Eurasian Penduline

Remiz pendulinus

Wheatear, Red-tailed

Wheatear, Red-tailed

Oenanthe chrysopygia

الذكات

الذكات

Recurvirostra avosetta

Dove, European Turtle

Dove, European Turtle

Streptopelia turtur

Roller, European

Roller, European

Coracias garrulus

Egret, Western Great

Egret, Western Great

Egrets and Heronsta alba

Wheatear, Variable

Wheatear, Variable

Oenanthe picata

Courser, Cream-coloured

Courser, Cream-coloured

Cursorius cursor

Owl, Little

Owl, Little

Athene noctua

Whinchat

Whinchat

Saxicola rubetra

Martin, Pale Crag

Martin, Pale Crag

Ptyonoprogne (fuligula) obsolete

Hoopoe, Eurasian

Hoopoe, Eurasian

Upupa epops

Owl, Pharoah Eagle

Owl, Pharoah Eagle

Bubo ascalaphus

Falcon, Peregrine

Falcon, Peregrine

Falco peregrinus

Owl, Eurasian Scops

Owl, Eurasian Scops

Otus scops

Sparrowhawk, Eurasian

Sparrowhawk, Eurasian

Accipiter nisus

Wheatear, Hooded

Wheatear, Hooded

Oenanthe monacha

Lark, Crested

Lark, Crested

Galerida cristata

Wryneck, Eurasian

Wryneck, Eurasian

Jynx torquilla

Egret, Western Cattle

Egret, Western Cattle

Bubulacus ibis

Hobby, Eurasian

Hobby, Eurasian

Falco subbuteo

Ibis, Glossy

Ibis, Glossy

Plegadis falcinellus

Buzzard, Long-legged

Buzzard, Long-legged

Buteo rufinus

Harrier, Montagu’s

Harrier, Montagu’s

Circus pygargus

Martin, Eurasian Crag

Martin, Eurasian Crag

Ptyonoprogne rupestris

Swallow, Barn

Swallow, Barn

Hirundo rustica

Buzzard, European Honey

Buzzard, European Honey

Pernis apivorus

Shrike, Daurian

Shrike, Daurian

Lanius isabellinus

Shrike, Red-backed

Shrike, Red-backed

Lanius collurio

Siskin, Eurasian

Siskin, Eurasian

Carduelis spinus

Blackbird, Eurasian

Blackbird, Eurasian

Turdus merula

Chiffchaff, Common

Chiffchaff, Common

Phylloscopus collybita

Kestrel, Common

Kestrel, Common

Falco tinnunculus

Pratincole, Collared

Pratincole, Collared

Glareola pratincola

Shrike, Bay-backed

Shrike, Bay-backed

Lanius vittatus

Wheatear, Hume’s

Wheatear, Hume’s

Oenanthe albonigra

Thrush, Black-throated

Thrush, Black-throated

Turdus atrogularis

Warbler, Menetries’s

Warbler, Menetries’s

Sylvia mytacea

Warbler, Plain Leaf

Warbler, Plain Leaf

Phylloscopus neglectus

Owl, Pallid Scops

Owl, Pallid Scops

Otus brucei

Pipit, Tawny

Pipit, Tawny

Anthus campestris

Roller, Indian

Roller, Indian

Coracias benghalensis

Eagle, Booted

Eagle, Booted

Aquila pennata

Lark, Desert

Lark, Desert

Ammomanes deserti

Owl, Short-eared

Owl, Short-eared

Asio flammeus

Pipit, Meadow

Pipit, Meadow

Anthus pratensis

Dove, Eurasian Collared

Dove, Eurasian Collared

Streptopelia decaocto

Falcon, Lanner

Falcon, Lanner

Falco biarmicus

Blackcap, Eurasian

Blackcap, Eurasian

Sylvia atricapilla

Bunting, Cretzschmar’s

Bunting, Cretzschmar’s

Emberiza caesia

Hoopoe-Lark, Greater

Hoopoe-Lark, Greater

Alaemon alaudipes

Rosefinch, Common

Rosefinch, Common

Carpodacus erythrinus

Oriole, Eurasian Golden

Oriole, Eurasian Golden

Oriolus oriolus

Ouzel, Ring

Ouzel, Ring

Turdus torquatus

Wheatear, Pied

Wheatear, Pied

Oenanthe pleschanka

Kite, Black

Kite, Black

Milvus migrans

Skylark, Eurasian

Skylark, Eurasian

Alauda arvensis

Wagtail, Grey

Wagtail, Grey

Motacilla cinerea

Reed Warbler, Eurasian Reed

Reed Warbler, Eurasian Reed

Acrocephalus scripaceus

Starling, Rose-coloured

Starling, Rose-coloured

Pastor roseus

Thrush, Blue Rock

Thrush, Blue Rock

Monticola solitarius

Owl, Barn

Owl, Barn

Tyto alba

Warbler, Eastern Orphean

Warbler, Eastern Orphean

Sylvia crassirostris

Bustard, Macqueen’s

Bustard, Macqueen’s

Chlamydotis macqueenii

Stork, Western White

Stork, Western White

Ciconia ciconia

Bunting, Eastern Cinereous

Bunting, Eastern Cinereous

Emberiza (cineracea )semenowi

Bunting, Black-headed

Bunting, Black-headed

Emberiza melanocephala

Pratincole, Black-winged

Pratincole, Black-winged

Glareola nordmanni

Eagle, Greater Spotted

Eagle, Greater Spotted

Aquila clanga

Finch, Trumpeter

Finch, Trumpeter

Bucanetes githagineus

Bunting, Western Cinereous

Bunting, Western Cinereous

Emberiza cineracea

Stonechat, Pied

Stonechat, Pied

Saxicola caprata

Wagtail, Yellow

Wagtail, Yellow

Motacilla flava

Wheatear, Isabelline

Wheatear, Isabelline

Oenanthe isabellina

Flycatcher, Semi-collared

Flycatcher, Semi-collared

Ficedula semitorquata

Falcon, Sooty

Falcon, Sooty

Falco concolor

Flycatcher, Red-breasted

Flycatcher, Red-breasted

Ficedula parva

Snipe, Common

Snipe, Common

Gallinago gallinago

Eagle, Eastern Imperial

Eagle, Eastern Imperial

Aquila heliaca

Shrike, Lesser Grey

Shrike, Lesser Grey

Lanius minor

Shrike, Masked

Shrike, Masked

Lanius nubicus

Snipe, Jack

Snipe, Jack

Lymnocryptes minimus

Kite, Black-eared

Kite, Black-eared

Milvus (migrans) lineatus

Warbler, Garden

Warbler, Garden

Sylvia barin

Nightingale, Thrush

Nightingale, Thrush

Luscinia luscinia

Wagtail, Citrine

Wagtail, Citrine

Motacilla citreola

Lark, Bimaculated

Lark, Bimaculated

Melanocorypha bimaculata

gull

gull

Anser anser

Warbler, Eastern Olivaceous

Warbler, Eastern Olivaceous

Iduna pallida

Swift, Alpine

Swift, Alpine

Tachymarptis melba

Nightjar, Egyptian

Nightjar, Egyptian

Caprimulgus aegyptius

Swift, Common

Swift, Common

Apus apus

Warbler, Hume’s Leaf

Warbler, Hume’s Leaf

Phylloscopus humei

Cuckoo, Common

Cuckoo, Common

Cuculus canorus

Swift, Pallid

Swift, Pallid

Apus pallidus

Warbler, Wood

Warbler, Wood

Phylloscopus sibilatrix

Cuckoo, Pied

Cuckoo, Pied

Oxylophus jacobinus

Francolin, Grey

Francolin, Grey

Francolinus pondicerianus

Warbler, Icterine

Warbler, Icterine

Hippolais icterina

Bunting, Corn

Bunting, Corn

Emberiza calandra

Ibis, African Sacred

Ibis, African Sacred

Threskiornis aethiopicus

Parakeet, Rose-ringed

Parakeet, Rose-ringed

Psittacula krameri

Sandgrouse Chestnut-bellied

Sandgrouse Chestnut-bellied

Pterocles exustus

Koel, Asian

Koel, Asian

Eudynamys scolopaceus

Parakeet, Alexandrine

Parakeet, Alexandrine

Psittacula eupatria

Bulbul, White-eared

Bulbul, White-eared

Pycnonotus leucotis

Bulbul, Red-vented

Bulbul, Red-vented

Pycnonotus cafer

Warbler, Common Grasshopper

Warbler, Common Grasshopper

Locustella naevia

Mynah, Common

Mynah, Common

Acridotheres tristis

Osprey

Osprey

Pandion haliaetus

Silverbill, Indian

Silverbill, Indian

Lanchura malabarica

Bunting, Striolated

Bunting, Striolated

Emberiza striolata

Chaffinch, Common

Chaffinch, Common

Fringilla coelebs

Merlin

Merlin

Falco columbarius

Peafowl, Indian (Peacock)

Peafowl, Indian (Peacock)

Pavo cristatus

Weaver, Streaked

Weaver, Streaked

Ploceus manyar

Harrier, Western Marsh

Harrier, Western Marsh

Circus aeruginosus

Moorhen, Common

Moorhen, Common

Gallinula chloropus

Rockfinch, Pale

Rockfinch, Pale

Carpospiza brachydactyla

Bee-eater, Blue-cheeked

Bee-eater, Blue-cheeked

Merops persicus

Sparrow, Spanish

Sparrow, Spanish

Passer hispaniolensis

Bee-eater, European

Bee-eater, European

Merops apiaster

Sparrow, House

Sparrow, House

Passer domesticus

Crow, House

Crow, House

Corvus splendens

Nightingale, Eastern

Nightingale, Eastern

Lucinia (megarhynchos) golzii

Thrush, Song

Thrush, Song

Turdus philomelos

Nightjar, European

Nightjar, European

Caprimulgus europaeus

Warbler, Asian Desert

Warbler, Asian Desert

Sylvia nana

Warbler, Clamorous Reed

Warbler, Clamorous Reed

Acrocephalus stentoreus

Prinia, Graceful

Prinia, Graceful

Prinia gracilis

Pipit, Tree

Pipit, Tree

Anthus trivialis

Dove, Rock (including Feral Pigeon)

Dove, Rock (including Feral Pigeon)

Columba livia

Robin, Rufous-tailed Scrub

Robin, Rufous-tailed Scrub

Cercotrichas galactotes

Dove, Namaqua

Dove, Namaqua

Oena capensis

Nightingale, Common

Nightingale, Common

Luscinia megarhynchos

Dove, Laughing

Dove, Laughing

Spilopelia senegalensis

Robin, White-throated

Robin, White-throated

Irania gutturalis

Swallow, Red-rumped

Swallow, Red-rumped

Cecropis daurica

Martin, Common House

Martin, Common House

Delichon urbicum

Cuckoo, Great Spotted

Cuckoo, Great Spotted

Clamator glandarius

Martin, Sand

Martin, Sand

Riparia riparia

Sparrow-Lark, Black-crowned

Sparrow-Lark, Black-crowned

Eremopterix nigriceps

Shrike, Woodchat

Shrike, Woodchat

Lanius senator

Pipit, Red-throated

Pipit, Red-throated

Anthus cervinus

Warbler, Barred

Warbler, Barred

Sylvia nisoria

Shrike, Steppe Grey

Shrike, Steppe Grey

Lanius (meridionalis)pallidirostris

Whitethroat, Common

Whitethroat, Common

Sylvia communis

Whitethroat, Hume’s

Whitethroat, Hume’s

Sylvia althaea

Robin, Black Scrub

Robin, Black Scrub

Cercotrichas podobe

Warbler, Willow

Warbler, Willow

Phylloscopus trochilus

Flycatcher, Spotted

Flycatcher, Spotted

Muscicapa striata

Redstart, Black

Redstart, Black

Phoenicurus ochruros

Wheatear, Northern

Wheatear, Northern

Oenanthe oenanthe

Wheatear, Finsch’s

Wheatear, Finsch’s

Oenanthe finschii

Wheatear, Eastern Black-eared

Wheatear, Eastern Black-eared

Oenanthe (hispanica) melanoleuca

Whitethroat, Lesser

Whitethroat, Lesser

Sylvia curruca

Redstart, Common

Redstart, Common

Phoenicurus phoenicurus

Stonechat, Siberian

Stonechat, Siberian

Saxicola maurus

Harrier, Pallid

Harrier, Pallid

Circus macrourus

Thrush, Rufous-tailed Rock

Thrush, Rufous-tailed Rock

Monticola saxatilis

Bunting, Ortolan

Bunting, Ortolan

Emberiza hortulana

Lark, Bar-tailed

Lark, Bar-tailed

Ammomanes cincturus

Warbler, Great Reed

Warbler, Great Reed

Acrocephalus arundinaceus

Warbler, Sedge

Warbler, Sedge

Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

Warbler, Upcher’s

Warbler, Upcher’s

Hippolais languida

Eagle, Short-toed Snake

Eagle, Short-toed Snake

Circaetus gallicus

Harrier, Hen

Harrier, Hen

Circus cyaneus

Shrike, Turkestan

Shrike, Turkestan

Lanius (isabellinus) phoenicuroides

Kestrel, Lesser

Kestrel, Lesser

Falco naumanni

Eagle, Steppe

Eagle, Steppe

Aquila nipalensis

Shrike, Southern Grey

Shrike, Southern Grey

Lanius meridionalis

Quail, Common

Quail, Common

Coturnix coturnix

Wagtail, White

Wagtail, White

Motacilla alba

Redstart, Eversmann’s

Redstart, Eversmann’s

Phoenicurus erythronotus

Warbler, Savi’s

Warbler, Savi’s

Locustella lusciniodes

Warbler, Marsh

Warbler, Marsh

Acrocephalus palustris

Whitethroat, Desert

Whitethroat, Desert

Sylvia minula

Aegyptius Bug

Aegyptius Bug

Coranus aegyptius

Asperulus Beetle

Asperulus Beetle

Cheirodes (Histiaea) asperulus

Besnardi Beetle

Besnardi Beetle

Gonocephalum (Gonocephalum) besnardi

Blue Pansy

Blue Pansy

Junonia [= Precis] orithya

Brevicollis Beetle

Brevicollis Beetle

Cheirodes (Pseudanemia) brevicollis

Buettikeri Beetle

Buettikeri Beetle

Oxycara (Oxycara) buettikeri

Caterpillar Hunter

Caterpillar Hunter

Campalita olivieri

Cetorus  Beetle

Cetorus Beetle

Centorus (Centorus) csikii ssp. bagdadensis

Cicada

Cicada

Platypleura arabica

Citrus Leafminer

Citrus Leafminer

Phyllocnistis citrella

Consobrinum Beetle

Consobrinum Beetle

Gonocephalum (Gonocephalum) consobrinum

Convolvulus Hawk-moth

Convolvulus Hawk-moth

Agrius convolvuli

Costae Bug

Costae Bug

Hallodapus costae

Crimson-speckled Flunkey

Crimson-speckled Flunkey

Utetheisa lotrix ssp. Lepida

Cucumber Moth

Cucumber Moth

Diaphania indica

Darkling Beetle

Darkling Beetle

Apentanodes arabicus

Darkling Beetle

Darkling Beetle

Prionotheca coronata ssp. ovalis

Darkling Beetle

Darkling Beetle

Blaps kollarii

Date-palm Stalk Borer

Date-palm Stalk Borer

Oryctes (Rykanoryctes) elegans

Dilamus  Beetle

Dilamus Beetle

Dilamus (Dilamus) arabicus

Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer

Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer

Leucinodes orboralis

Erodius  beetle

Erodius beetle

Erodius (Eodirosis) sauditus

Falsocatomulus Beetle

Falsocatomulus Beetle

Falsocatomulus euphraticus

Fasciata  Grasshopper

Fasciata Grasshopper

Morphacris fasciata

Faustinata Moth

Faustinata Moth

Phaiogramma faustinata

Firebug

Firebug

Pyrrhocoris apterus

Giant African Mantis

Giant African Mantis

Sphodromantis viridis

Green Lacewing

Green Lacewing

Chrysopela CF. Carnea

Ground Bug

Ground Bug

Spilostethus pandurus

Gryllus campestris

Gryllus campestris

Gryllotalba gryllotalba

Hansbremeri Beetle

Hansbremeri Beetle

Oxycara (Symphoxycara) hansbremeri

Hawaiian Beet Webworm Moth

Hawaiian Beet Webworm Moth

Spoladea recurvalis

Insubricus  Grasshopper

Insubricus Grasshopper

Acrotylus insubricus

Kraatzi Beetle

Kraatzi Beetle

Thriptera kraatzi

Long-horn Date-palm Stem-borer

Long-horn Date-palm Stem-borer

Jebusaea hammerschmidti

Longheaded Flour Beetle

Longheaded Flour Beetle

Latheticus oryzae

Longipes  Grasshopper

Longipes Grasshopper

Acrotylus longipes

Mandli Beetle

Mandli Beetle

Prodilamus mandli

Mantis

Mantis

Eremiaphila sp.

Marginata beetle

Marginata beetle

Microdera (Tentyrodera) marginata ssp. deserticola

Mealworm Beetle

Mealworm Beetle

Tenebrio molitor

Mesaieed Psylla

Mesaieed Psylla

Calliardia n. sp.

Mundus  Grasshopper

Mundus Grasshopper

Stenohippus mundus

Old World Hybosorus Scarab

Old World Hybosorus Scarab

Hybosorus illigeri

Painted Lady

Painted Lady

Vanessa [=Cynthia] cardui

Paraplatyope Beetle

Paraplatyope Beetle

Paraplatyope arabica ssp. arabica

Patruele  Beetle

Patruele Beetle

Gonocephalum (Gonocephalum) patruele

Pea Blue or Long-tailed Blue

Pea Blue or Long-tailed Blue

Lampides boeticus

Penthicus Beetle

Penthicus Beetle

Penthicus (Penthicus) oblongopunctatus

Phtora Beetle

Phtora Beetle

Phtora apicilaevis

Pimelia Beetle

Pimelia Beetle

Pimelia (Pimelia) arabica

Pioneer White or  Brown-veined White

Pioneer White or Brown-veined White

Anaphaeis aurota

Potato Aphid

Potato Aphid

Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Prochroma Beetle

Prochroma Beetle

Prochroma (Oxypistoma) bucculenta

Prolixum Beetle

Prolixum Beetle

Gonocephalum (Gonocephalum) prolixum

Proscheimus Beetle

Proscheimus Beetle

Proscheimus arabicus

Puissanti  Grasshopper

Puissanti Grasshopper

Aiolopus puissanti

Puncticollis Beetle

Puncticollis Beetle

Mesostena (Mesostena) puncticollis

Punctulatus beetle

Punctulatus beetle

Opatroides punctulatus

Pygmea Beetle

Pygmea Beetle

Hyperops (Belutschistanops) pygmea ssp. arabica

Rack Beetle

Rack Beetle

Tentyrina palmeri ssp. thomasi

Red Date-palm Weevil

Red Date-palm Weevil

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

Red Flour Beetle

Red Flour Beetle

Tribolium castaneum

Sardous Beetle

Sardous Beetle

Cheirodes (Cheirodes) sardous

Scentless Plant Bug

Scentless Plant Bug

Liorhyssus hyalinus

Setulosum  Beetle

Setulosum Beetle

Gonocephalum (Gonocephalum) setulosum

Sitona Weevil

Sitona Weevil

Sitona (Sitona) ocellatus

Sordidatus Bug

Sordidatus Bug

Nemausus sordidatus

Spotted Bollworm

Spotted Bollworm

Earias vittella

Sugarcane Looper

Sugarcane Looper

Mocis frugalis

The Vagrant Emperor

The Vagrant Emperor

Hemianax ephippiger

Thistle Mantis

Thistle Mantis

Blepharopsis mendica

Trachyderma Beetle

Trachyderma Beetle

Trachyderma parvicollis

Vicinus beetle

Vicinus beetle

Opatroides vicinus

White-lined Sphinx

White-lined Sphinx

Hyles lineata

Zophosis Beetle

Zophosis Beetle

Zophosis (Septentriophosis) complanata

7-spot Ladybird

7-spot Ladybird

Coccinella (Coccinella) septempunctata

Black Percher

Black Percher

Diplacodes lefbvrei

Housefly

Housefly

Musca domestica

Oriental Cockroach

Oriental Cockroach

Blatta Orientalis

The House Cricket

The House Cricket

Acheta Domesticus

11-spot Ladybird

11-spot Ladybird

Coccinella (Spilota) undecimpunctata

Lesser Pumpkin Fly

Lesser Pumpkin Fly

Dacus (Didacus) ciliatus

Tiger Beetle

Tiger Beetle

Myriochila (Myriochila) melancholica

American Cockroach

American Cockroach

Periplaneta Americana

Beetle

Beetle

Labarrus Lividus

Tiger Beetle

Tiger Beetle

Megacephala (Grammognatha) euphratica

Weevils

Weevils

Ammocleonus Aschabadensis

Clouded Yellow

Clouded Yellow

Colias croceus

Dragonfly

Dragonfly

Orthetrum Sabina

Tiger Beetle

Tiger Beetle

Calomera aulica

Cylindric Grasshopper

Cylindric Grasshopper

Tropidopola Cylindrica

German Cockroach

German Cockroach

Blattella Germanica

Scarab Beetle

Scarab Beetle

Autoserica insanabilis

Scarites

Scarites

Scarites (Parallelomorphus) terricola ssp. Aethiopicus

Long-horn Palm-borer

Long-horn Palm-borer

Iranobrium davatchii

Akis beetle

Akis beetle

Akis spinosa

Adesmia beetle

Adesmia beetle

Adesmia (Osteralis) khaliensis

Adesmia Beetle

Adesmia Beetle

Adesmia (Macradesmia) cancellata

Dung Beetle

Dung Beetle

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) bannuensis

Scarab Beetle

Scarab Beetle

Pentodon algerinum ssp. dispar

Rhinoceros Beetle

Rhinoceros Beetle

Oryctes (Rykanoryctes) agamemnon ssp. arabicus

Click Beetle

Click Beetle

Lacon modestus

Snout Beetle

Snout Beetle

Lixus pulverulentus

Red-legged Ham Beetle

Red-legged Ham Beetle

Necrobia rufipes

Eucymatodera Beetle

Eucymatodera Beetle

Eucymatodera senegalensis

Groundnut Seed Beetle

Groundnut Seed Beetle

Caryedon serratus

Seed Beetle

Seed Beetle

Algarobius prosopis

Domino Beetle

Domino Beetle

Anthia duodecimguttata

Jewel Beetle

Jewel Beetle

Julodis euphratica

Caterpillar Hunter

Caterpillar Hunter

Poecilus (Ancholeus) wollastoni

Plain Tiger

Plain Tiger

Danaus (Anosia) chrysippus

Swallowtail Butterfly

Swallowtail Butterfly

Papilio demoleus

Death’s-head Hawk-moth

Death’s-head Hawk-moth

Acherontia atropos

Myrmeleon

Myrmeleon

Myrmeleon hyalinus

Field Cricket

Field Cricket

Gryllus bimaculatus

Lesser Mealworm

Lesser Mealworm

Alphitobius diaperinus

Clitobius  Beetle

Clitobius Beetle

Clitobius (Clitobius) oblongiusculus

Imatismus Beetle

Imatismus Beetle

Imatismus arabicus

Prolixa Beetle

Prolixa Beetle

Phaleria (Epiphaleria) prolixa

Pseudoseriscius Beetle

Pseudoseriscius Beetle

Pseudoseriscius griseovestis

Aphidophagous Ladybird

Aphidophagous Ladybird

Scymnus (Scymnus) nubilus

‘Parkinsonia

‘Parkinsonia

Parkinsonia aculeata

Aelijaan

Aelijaan

Taverniera spartea

Alaqool

Alaqool

Alhagi maurorum

Antbush

Antbush

Senna occidentalis

Arab Bean

Arab Bean

Vaccaria hispanica

Arta

Arta

Calligonum comosum

Athl

Athl

Tamarix aucheriana

Bard Vitch

Bard Vitch

Vicia monantha

Barley

Barley

Hordeum vulgare

Barseem

Barseem

Hymenocarpos circinnatus

Barwaq

Barwaq

Asphodelus tenuifolius

Beet

Beet

Beta vulgaris

Bermuda Buttercup

Bermuda Buttercup

Oxalis pes-caprae

Bermuda Grass

Bermuda Grass

Cynodon dactylon

Bird Tongue

Bird Tongue

Parietaria alsinifolia

Birdwood Grass

Birdwood Grass

Cenchrus setigerus

Bladderdock

Bladderdock

Rumex vesicarius

Blue Flower

Blue Flower

Stachytarphaeta angustifolia

Blue-stem Grass

Blue-stem Grass

Hyparrhenia hirta

Bristle Grass

Bristle Grass

Pennisetum divisum

Brome grass

Brome grass

Bromus madritensis

Brown Lily

Brown Lily

Dipcadi erythraeum

Buck’s-horn Plantain

Buck’s-horn Plantain

Plantago coronopus

Burning Nettle

Burning Nettle

Urtica urens

Castor-oil Plant

Castor-oil Plant

Ricinus communis

Casuarina

Casuarina

Casuarina equisetifolia

Cat’s-eye

Cat’s-eye

Anagallis arvensis

Cheat grass

Cheat grass

Bromus scoparius

Chickweed, Algazaz Grass

Chickweed, Algazaz Grass

Stellaria media

Christ’s Thorn

Christ’s Thorn

Ziziphus spina-christi

Corn Cleavers

Corn Cleavers

Galium tricornutum

Cottina, Cotton

Cottina, Cotton

Bassia eriophora

Crab Grass

Crab Grass

Digitaria sanguinalis

Creeping Sorrel

Creeping Sorrel

Oxalis corniculata

Curved Hard-grass

Curved Hard-grass

Parapholis incurva

Dahah

Dahah

Lasiurus scindicus

Dahmah

Dahmah

Monsonia nivea

Dahseer

Dahseer

Taverniera aegyptiaca

Daqeeqa, Umm threib

Daqeeqa, Umm threib

Spergularia diandra

Date Palm

Date Palm

Phoenix dactylifera

Degayga

Degayga

Mollugo cerviana

Desert Figwort

Desert Figwort

Scrophularia deserti

Desert Thorn

Desert Thorn

Lycium shawii

Devil’s Coach Whip

Devil’s Coach Whip

Stachytarphaeta angustifolia

Dhuraymah

Dhuraymah

Fagonia bruguieri

Dove’s-foot Crane’s-bill

Dove’s-foot Crane’s-bill

Geranium molle

Egyptian Fenugreek

Egyptian Fenugreek

Trigonella glabra

Fasah, gat

Fasah, gat

Medicago sativa

Fern-leaf Peony

Fern-leaf Peony

Fagonia tenuifolia

Fig

Fig

Ficus carica

Finger Grass

Finger Grass

Chloris barbata

Fountain Grass

Fountain Grass

Pennisetum setaceum

Foxtail Grass

Foxtail Grass

Cenchrus ciliaris

Frogfruit

Frogfruit

Phyla nodiflora

Garat, Garad, sanat

Garat, Garad, sanat

Acacia nilotica

Gebira, Haitham

Gebira, Haitham

Bassia muricata

Gharaz

Gharaz

Chrysopogon plumulosus

Ghardab

Ghardab

Polygonum argyrocoleum

Giant Reed

Giant Reed

Arundo donax

Glandular Speedwell

Glandular Speedwell

Veronica cymbalaria

Habyan

Habyan

Seetzenia lanata

Hadal

Hadal

Plicosepalus acaciae

Hairy Nightshade

Hairy Nightshade

Solanum villosum

Hajeen

Hajeen

Centropodia forsskaolii

Halaq

Halaq

Astragalus annularis

Halook

Halook

Orobanchaceae

Halta

Halta

Chrysopogon gryllus

Hama

Hama

Cullen plicatum

Hamd alarnab, Shayran

Hamd alarnab, Shayran

Anabasis setifera

Hameira

Hameira

Indigofera intricata

Hamrah

Hamrah

Ochthochloa compressa

Handakoq Abiad

Handakoq Abiad

Melilotus albus

Handakoq Asfar

Handakoq Asfar

Melilotus indicus

Harm

Harm

Tetraena qatarensis

Hawrbeith

Hawrbeith

Lotus glinoides

Helul

Helul

Senna alexandrina

Henna

Henna

Lawsonia inermis

Hopbush

Hopbush

Dodonaea viscosa

Horbith

Horbith

Lotononis platycarpa

Hureim

Hureim

Tetraena simplex

Ikrish

Ikrish

Aeluropus lagopoides

Incense Grass

Incense Grass

Cymbopogon commutatus

Indian Grass

Indian Grass

Dichanthium annulatum

Indigofera

Indigofera

Indigofera oblongifolia

Ja’ad

Ja’ad

Teucrium polium

Ja’ja’an

Ja’ja’an

Abutilon fruticosum

Jrnah

Jrnah

Monsonia heliotropioides

Jumby Bean

Jumby Bean

Scorpiurus muricatus

Kebaisha

Kebaisha

Erodium glaucophyllum

Kenar

Kenar

Ziziphus nummularia

Khaisa, Samgaht ALRih

Khaisa, Samgaht ALRih

Chenopodium murale

Khanasir al ’aroos

Khanasir al ’aroos

Astragalus sieberi

Khatma

Khatma

Althaea ludwigii

Khawatim al bar

Khawatim al bar

Astragalus corrugatus

Khillah

Khillah

Rumex dentatus

Khubeizah

Khubeizah

Malva nicaeensis

Khuneeq

Khuneeq

Cocculus pendulus

Lazzaq

Lazzaq

Forsskaolea tenacissima

Least Mallow

Least Mallow

Malva parviflora

Lebena Arabia

Lebena Arabia

Euphorbia arabica

Lebena

Lebena

Euphorbia granulata

Lesser Chickweed

Lesser Chickweed

Stellaria pallida

Love-grass

Love-grass

Eragrostis barrelieri

Lowaq

Lowaq

Abutilon pannosum

Memphis Grass

Memphis Grass

Cutandia memphitica

Millet Rice

Millet Rice

Echinochloa colona

Moleih

Moleih

Frankenia pulverulenta

Mouse Barley

Mouse Barley

Hordeum murinum

Mouse Barley

Mouse Barley

Hordeum murinum

Mulakhiyah al bar

Mulakhiyah al bar

Corchorus depressus

Mulakhiyah

Mulakhiyah

Corchorus olitorius

Nafal Abo Hassak

Nafal Abo Hassak

Medicago laciniata

Nafal Bari, Halba Bariah

Nafal Bari, Halba Bariah

Trigonella anguina

Nafal

Nafal

Trigonella anguina

Najm

Najm

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

Needlegrass

Needlegrass

Aristida mutabilis

Oat Brome

Oat Brome

Bromus danthoniae

Pouteria

Pouteria

Rhynchosia minima

Prickly Dock

Prickly Dock

Emex spinosa

Purple False Brome

Purple False Brome

Brachypodium distachyum

Purslane

Purslane

Portulaca oleracea

Qadha

Qadha

Haloxylon persicum

Qileiqlan, hdot ALHosan

Qileiqlan, hdot ALHosan

Hippocrepis multisiliquosa

Qileiqlan

Qileiqlan

Hippocrepis unisiliquosa

Qurdi

Qurdi

Ochradenus baccatus

Rablat al mistah

Rablat al mistah

Plantago amplexicaulis

Rabl

Rabl

Plantago psyllium

Rakhami

Rakhami

Astragalus tribuloides

Rak

Rak

Salvadora persica

Rasha

Rasha

Juncus rigidus

Ra’al

Ra’al

Salvia aegyptiaca

Reseda

Reseda

Oligomeris linifolia

Reversed Trefoil

Reversed Trefoil

Trifolium resupinatum

Rigid Flax

Rigid Flax

Linum strictum

Rye grass

Rye grass

Lolium rigidum

Saadan

Saadan

Neurada procumbens

Sacred Datura

Sacred Datura

Datura innoxia

Safsaf

Safsaf

Aristida adscensionis

Salam

Salam

Acacia ehrenbergiana

Samgaht Al Rih

Samgaht Al Rih

Chenopodium album

Sand Spurry

Sand Spurry

Spergularia bocconei

Sandmat

Sandmat

Chamaesyce serpens

Sa’ed

Sa’ed

Cyperus laevigatus

Senna

Senna

Senna italica

Sesban

Sesban

Sesbania sesban

Shabraq

Shabraq

Ononis reclinata

Shabraq

Shabraq

Ononis sicula

Shawlah

Shawlah

Reseda arabica

Shershir

Shershir

Tribulus arabicus

Shka’e

Shka’e

Fagonia ovalifolia

Shufan barri

Shufan barri

Avena sterilis

Shwaikah

Shwaikah

Fagonia indica

Sidr

Sidr

Ziziphus mauritiana

Silver Nightshade

Silver Nightshade

Solanum elaeagnifolium

Sinan at-tais

Sinan at-tais

Haplophyllum tuberculatum

Sineim

Sineim

Chloris virgata

Soft Love-grass

Soft Love-grass

Eragrostis pilosa

Sorrel

Sorrel

Rumex cyprius

Sourgrass

Sourgrass

Oxalis debilis

Sprangletops

Sprangletops

Leptochloa fusca

Star Fenugreek

Star Fenugreek

Trigonella stellata

Stink-grass

Stink-grass

Eragrostis cilianensis

Stone-breaker, Arq AL-Nada

Stone-breaker, Arq AL-Nada

Phyllanthus niruri

Tanoom

Tanoom

Chrozophora tinctoria

Tanoom

Tanoom

Chrozophora oblongifolia

Tarfah

Tarfah

Tamarix aphylla

Thamam

Thamam

Panicum turgidum

Torba

Torba

Silene conica

Torba

Torba

Silene villosa

Umm al qurain; Umm Ghorien

Umm al qurain; Umm Ghorien

Hippocrepis areolata

Weasel’s Snout

Weasel’s Snout

Misopates orontium

Wedaina

Wedaina

Cistanche tubulosa

Whitehead

Whitehead

Enicostema verticillatum

Wild Jute

Wild Jute

Corchorus trilocularis

Winter Cherry

Winter Cherry

Physalis angulata

Wiregrass

Wiregrass

Aristida abnormis

Woolly Love-grass

Woolly Love-grass

Eragrostis ciliaris

Woolly-winged Milkwort

Woolly-winged Milkwort

Polygala erioptera

Bishop’s Weed

Bishop’s Weed

Ammi majus

Cut-leaved Crane’s-bill

Cut-leaved Crane’s-bill

Erodium laciniatum

Daqeeqa (1)

Daqeeqa (1)

Polycarpon tetraphyllum

Dwarf Chicory

Dwarf Chicory

Cichorium pumilum

Eyelash Plant, Njiaa

Eyelash Plant, Njiaa

Blepharis ciliaris

Hamool

Hamool

Cuscuta chinensis

Huweimdha

Huweimdha

Andrachne telephioides

Khatme, Rohama

Khatme, Rohama

Convolvulus cephalopodus

Mesquite, Ghwoef.

Mesquite, Ghwoef.

Prosopis juliflora

Nance

Nance

Erucaria crassifolia

Rimth

Rimth

Haloxylon salicornicum

Rootha, Hamd

Rootha, Hamd

Salsola villosa

Samr

Samr

Acacia tortilis

Shnan

Shnan

Seidlitzia rosmarinus

Sweet Pea

Sweet Pea

Lathyrus inconspicuus

Cat’s-tail

Cat’s-tail

Typha domingensis

Cleome noeana

Cleome noeana

Cleome noeana

Ghaf

Ghaf

Prosopis cineraria

Hamool, Arook

Hamool, Arook

Cuscuta pedicellata

Rims

Rims

Anchusa hispida

Slender buffel Grass

Slender buffel Grass

Cenchrus pennisetiformis

Wild Mustard

Wild Mustard

Sinapis arvensis

Gazelle’s Horn

Gazelle’s Horn

Lotus halophilus

Hamool

Hamool

Cuscuta pentagona

Mureer

Mureer

Reichardia tingitana

Nusi

Nusi

Stipagrostis obtusa

Raraa ayoub

Raraa ayoub

Pulicaria sicula

Safra

Safra

Launaea mucronata

Spiny Cocklebur

Spiny Cocklebur

Xanthium spinosum

Hawa

Hawa

Launaea capitata

Mountain Tea

Mountain Tea

Pulicaria undulata

Prickly Golden Fleece

Prickly Golden Fleece

Urospermum picroides

Tall Bushman Grass

Tall Bushman Grass

Stipagrostis ciliata

Jersey Cudweed

Jersey Cudweed

Laphangium luteoalbum

Spear Grass

Spear Grass

Stipa capensis

Zafira

Zafira

Tripleurospermum auriculatum

Drop-seed Grass

Drop-seed Grass

Sporobolus spicatus

Goat’s Beard

Goat’s Beard

Koelpinia linearis

Nafayj

Nafayj

Pulicaria gnaphalodes

Hasaj

Hasaj

Ifloga spicata

Marsh Fleabane

Marsh Fleabane

Pluchea dioscoridis

Wild Lettuce

Wild Lettuce

Sonchus oleraceus

Yellow water Crown-grass

Yellow water Crown-grass

Paspalidium desertorum

Camel’s Eye

Camel’s Eye

Gymnarrhena micrantha

Common Sow Thistle

Common Sow Thistle

Sonchus

Hawdhan

Hawdhan

Picris aspleniodes

Siler Roots

Siler Roots

Sphenopus divaricatus

Crown Daisy

Crown Daisy

Glebionis coronaria

Prickly Sow Thistle

Prickly Sow Thistle

Sonchus

Slender Sow Thistle

Slender Sow Thistle

Sonchus tenerrimus

Sudan Grass

Sudan Grass

Sorghum x drummondii

Zmiem al bar

Zmiem al bar

Pentanema divaricatum

Groundsel

Groundsel

Senecio vulgaris

Jahwayan

Jahwayan

Pallenis hierichuntica

Johnson Grass

Johnson Grass

Sorghum halepense

Arfaj

Arfaj

Rhanterium epapposum

Green Bristle-grass

Green Bristle-grass

Setaria viridis

Quteyna

Quteyna

Filago desertorum

Turnip

Turnip

Brassica rapa

Wild Chamomile

Wild Chamomile

Matricaria chamomilla

Arabian Primrose

Arabian Primrose

Arnebia decumbens

Fleabane Daisy

Fleabane Daisy

Erigeron bonariensis

Golden Chamomile

Golden Chamomile

Matricaria aurea

Rough Bristle-grass

Rough Bristle-grass

Setaria verticillata

Arabian Primrose

Arabian Primrose

Arnebia hispidissima

Huwa ghanam

Huwa ghanam

Launaea nudicaulis

Mediterranean Grass

Mediterranean Grass

Schismus barbatus

Arabian Schismus

Arabian Schismus

Schismus arabicus

Rahaba

Rahaba

Heliotropium zeylanicum

Ramram

Ramram

Heliotropium ramosissimum

Cleome barbaran

Cleome barbaran

Cleome brachycarpa

Rocket

Rocket

Eruca vesicaria

Tiny Bristle Grass

Tiny Bristle Grass

Rostraria pumila

Um Roos

Um Roos

Schimpera arabica

Cleome Clover

Cleome Clover

Cleome amblyocarpa

Rabbit-foot Grass

Rabbit-foot Grass

Polypogon monspeliensis

Sleisla

Sleisla

Eremobium aegyptiacum

Annual Meadow Grass

Annual Meadow Grass

Poa annua

Radish

Radish

Raphanus sativus

Shafallah

Shafallah

Capparis spinosa

Ward’s Weed

Ward’s Weed

Carrichtera annua

Evening Stock

Evening Stock

Matthiola longipetala

Reed

Reed

Phragmites australis

Shaja

Shaja

Zilla spinosa

Shiltam

Shiltam

Brassica tournefortii

Garden Cress

Garden Cress

Lepidium sativum

Indian Hedge Mustard

Indian Hedge Mustard

Sisymbrium orientale

Sha’ir al-far

Sha’ir al-far

Phalaris paradoxa

London Rocket

London Rocket

Sisymbrium irio

Small Canary Grass

Small Canary Grass

Phalaris minor

Swine Cress

Swine Cress

Lepidium didymum

Virgin’s Hand

Virgin’s Hand

Anastatica hierochuntica

Halm, Ghabshah

Halm, Ghabshah

Moltkiopsis ciliata

Monksefa

Monksefa

Eclipta prostrata

Murrar

Murrar

Centaurea sinaica

Qartam barie

Qartam barie

Carthamnus eriocephalus

Hanwa

Hanwa

Calendula tripterocarpa

Hanwa

Hanwa

Calendula arvensis

Lomi albar, Shwik

Lomi albar, Shwik

Atractylis carduus

Shih

Shih

Artemisia inculta

Selih

Selih

Erucaria hispanica

Rashad bari

Rashad bari

Lepidium aucheri

Harass

Harass

Sclerocephalus arabicus

Daqeeqa

Daqeeqa

Polycarpaea spicata

Kameela

Kameela

Polycarpaea repens

Rijel Alhamam

Rijel Alhamam

Paronychia arabica

Ghebayra, Eysh shawlah

Ghebayra, Eysh shawlah

Herniaria hirsuta

Ghebayra,Umm wajaa alkabid

Ghebayra,Umm wajaa alkabid

Herniaria hemistemon

Alqa

Alqa

Dipterygium glaucum

Zaphra, Khaysa

Zaphra, Khaysa

Cleome noeana

ThuwaT, Samarra

ThuwaT, Samarra

Sisymbrium erysimoides

Grace

Grace

Aaronsohnia factorovskyi

Marak

Marak

Leptadenia pyrotechnica

Itr, Jarawa (Fruits)

Itr, Jarawa (Fruits)

Glossonema varians

Ghasool, Hor

Ghasool, Hor

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum

Samah, Ghasool

Samah, Ghasool

Mesembryanthemum cryptanthum

Jafnah

Jafnah

Aizoon hispanicum

Hadaq, Jafnah

Hadaq, Jafnah

Aizoon canariense

Shrubby Horsetail, Alanda

Shrubby Horsetail, Alanda

Ephedra foliata

Adder’s-tongue Fern

Adder’s-tongue Fern

Ophioglossum polyphyllum

Torba

Torba

Zaleya pentandra

Tuwaim, Tarf

Tuwaim, Tarf

Aerva javanica

Orf Aldeek

Orf Aldeek

Amaranthus graecizans

Asher, Ashaar

Asher, Ashaar

Calotropis procera

Doflaa

Doflaa

Nerium oleander

Gomilla

Gomilla

Torilis nodosa

Fennel

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare

Dbbek

Dbbek

Bupleurum semicompositum

Dill

Dill

Anethum graveolens

Orf Aldeek

Orf Aldeek

Amaranthus viridis

Orf Aldeek

Orf Aldeek

Amaranthus hybridus

Torba

Torba

Silene arabica

Halablob

Halablob

Mercurialis annua

Melbow, Rohima

Melbow, Rohima

Convolvulus pilosellifolius

Aoliq, Madada

Aoliq, Madada

Convolvulus glomeratus

Aoliq

Aoliq

Convolvulus arvensis

Clustered Yellowtops

Clustered Yellowtops

Flaveria trinervia

conocarpus

conocarpus

Conocarpus lancifolius

Raqrouq

Raqrouq

Helianthemum kahiricum

Damran

Damran

Traganum nudatum

Handal

Handal

Citrullus colocynthis

Hadak

Hadak

Cucumis prophetarum

Halab

Halab

Euphorbia retusa

Lebena,Frabion

Lebena,Frabion

Euphorbia peplus

Lebena

Lebena

Euphorbia dracunculoides


No animals for this kingdom in this ecosystem