Coastal Marine Environment

Coastal Marine Environment

Coastal Marine Environment



The Qatari peninsula is a unique country, where the arid desert of the 11,581-km2-mainland phases into a 563-km-coastline washed by the waters of the Arabian Gulf, on a bathymetric scale ranging from 0 m to about a depth of 60 m.

Seawaters, in shallow depths, can be very hot (>50 °C) and very salty (>250 ppt) when compared to seas in temperate climates, making the Arabian Gulf the hottest and saltiest open sea in the world.

These extreme conditions work hand in hand to create diverse types of ecosystems that paint the waters from bright turquoise to deep blue, and the coast from brown to green. A myriad of living organisms are hosted there, both resident and migratory, including Dugongs and Whale Sharks, Flamingos and Cormorants, crabs, seagrasses and microbial marine mats. These have in common a set of behavioral and physiological adaptations to life in the ever-changing coastal and marine environment.

On a bathymetric transect, usually, sabkha salt flats and sandy and rocky beaches line the coast, followed by the intertidal and subtidal zones, mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs and finally the off-shore open Gulf.

Of course, the boundaries of these ecosystems are not squarely delineated, and thus, often one ecosystem engulfs the other or patches of an ecosystem are found within another.

© Chatziefthimiou AD. 2019. Coastal Marine Environment in Qatar. Qatar e-Nature.

Sources:
Basson PW et al, 1977
Batanouny KH, 1981
Barth J-H and Böer B, 2002
Sale P et al, 2011
Sheppard C et al, 2009


Sabkha

Sabkha

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Mangroves

Mangroves

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Open Gulf

Open Gulf

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Coral Reefs

Coral Reefs

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Inter - Sub-Tidal and Beach

Inter - Sub-Tidal and Beach

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Seagrass Beds

Seagrass Beds

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Dunlin

Dunlin

Calidris alpina

Flamingo, Greater

Flamingo, Greater

Phoenicopterus roseus

Grebe, Black-necked

Grebe, Black-necked

Podiceps nigricollis

Gull, Caspian

Gull, Caspian

Larus cachinnas

Heron, Goliath

Heron, Goliath

Ardea goliath

Lapwing, Sociable

Lapwing, Sociable

Vanellus gregarius

Oystercatcher, Eurasian

Oystercatcher, Eurasian

Haematopus ostralegus

Pelican, Great White

Pelican, Great White

Pelecanus onocrotalus

Redshank, Common

Redshank, Common

Tringa totanus

Swan, Whooper

Swan, Whooper

Cygnus cygnus

Teal, Eurasian

Teal, Eurasian

Anas crecca

Tropicbird, Red-billed

Tropicbird, Red-billed

Phaethon aethereus

Curlew, Eurasian

Curlew, Eurasian

Numenius arquata

Grebe, Little

Grebe, Little

Tachybaptus ruficollis

Gull. Heuglin’s

Gull. Heuglin’s

Larus heuglini

Kingfisher, Common

Kingfisher, Common

Alcedo atthis

Plover, Lesser Sand

Plover, Lesser Sand

Charadrius mongolus

Sandpiper, Curlew

Sandpiper, Curlew

Calidris ferruginea

Stint, Little

Stint, Little

Calidris minuta

Tern, Caspian

Tern, Caspian

Hydroprogne caspia

Garganey

Garganey

Anas querquedula

Grebe, Great Crested

Grebe, Great Crested

Podiceps cristatus

Heron, Black-crowned Night

Heron, Black-crowned Night

Nycticorax nycticorax

Kingfisher, Pied

Kingfisher, Pied

Ceryle rudis

Sandpiper, Green

Sandpiper, Green

Tringa ochropus

Stint, Temminck’s

Stint, Temminck’s

Calidris temminckii

Tern, Swift

Tern, Swift

Sterna bergii

Bittern, Eurasian

Bittern, Eurasian

Botaurus stellaris

Gull, Armenian

Gull, Armenian

Larus armenicus

Plover, Crab

Plover, Crab

Dromas ardeola

Sanderling

Sanderling

Calidris alba

Turnstone, Ruddy

Turnstone, Ruddy

Arenaria interpres

Bittern, Little

Bittern, Little

Ixobrychus minutus

Kingfisher, White-throated

Kingfisher, White-throated

Halcyon smyrensis

Knot, Great

Knot, Great

Calidris tenuirostris

Lapwing, Northern

Lapwing, Northern

Vanellus vanellus

Lapwing, White-tailed

Lapwing, White-tailed

Vanellus leucurus

Rail, Water

Rail, Water

Rallus aquaticus

Skua, Long-tailed

Skua, Long-tailed

Stercorarius longicaudus

Egret, Little

Egret, Little

Egrets and Heronsta garzetta

Gull, Slender-billed

Gull, Slender-billed

Chroicocephalus genei

Heron, Grey

Heron, Grey

Ardea cinerea

Plover, Greater Sand

Plover, Greater Sand

Charadrius leschenaultii

Sandpiper, Common

Sandpiper, Common

Actitis hypoleucos

Sandpiper, Marsh

Sandpiper, Marsh

Tringa stagnatilis

Spoonbill, Eurasian

Spoonbill, Eurasian

Platalea leucorodia

Plover, Pacific Golden

Plover, Pacific Golden

Pluvialis fulva

Heron, Squacco

Heron, Squacco

Ardeola ralloides

Sandpiper, Broad-billed

Sandpiper, Broad-billed

Limicola falcinellus

Skua, Pomarine

Skua, Pomarine

Stercorarius pomarinus

Goose. Greater White-fronted

Goose. Greater White-fronted

Anser albifrons

Gull, Common Black-headed

Gull, Common Black-headed

Chroicocephalus ridibundus

Heron, Purple

Heron, Purple

Ardea purpurea

Pochard, Common

Pochard, Common

Aythya ferina

Heron, Western Reef

Heron, Western Reef

Egrets and Heronsta gularis

Lapwing, Spur-winged

Lapwing, Spur-winged

Vanellus spinosus

Whimbrel

Whimbrel

Numenius phaeopus

Gull. Sooty

Gull. Sooty

Larus hemprichii

Lapwing, Red-wattled

Lapwing, Red-wattled

Vanellus indicus

Tern, Common

Tern, Common

Sterna hirundo

Pintail, Northern

Pintail, Northern

Anas acuta

Sandpiper, Terek

Sandpiper, Terek

Xenus cinereus

Jacana, Pheasant-tailed

Jacana, Pheasant-tailed

Hydrophasianus chirurgus

Godwit, Black-tailed

Godwit, Black-tailed

Limosa limosa

Plover, Common Ringed

Plover, Common Ringed

Charadrius hiaticula

Sandpiper, Wood

Sandpiper, Wood

Tringa glareola

Plover, Eurasian Golden

Plover, Eurasian Golden

Pluvialis apricaria

Greenshank, Common

Greenshank, Common

Tringa nebularia

Tern, Bridled

Tern, Bridled

Onychoprion anaethetus

Redshank, Spotted

Redshank, Spotted

Tringa erythropus

Corncrake

Corncrake

Crex crex

Phalarope, Red-necked

Phalarope, Red-necked

Phalaropus lobatus

Shelduck, Common

Shelduck, Common

Tadorna tadorna

Ruff

Ruff

Philomachus pugnax

Tern, Lesser-crested

Tern, Lesser-crested

Sterna bengalensis

Dotterel, Eurasian

Dotterel, Eurasian

Charadrius morinellus

Tern, Whiskered

Tern, Whiskered

Chlidonias hybrida

Skua, Arctic

Skua, Arctic

Stercorarius parasiticus

Plover, Caspian

Plover, Caspian

Charadrius asiaticus

Plover, Grey

Plover, Grey

Pluvialis squatarola

Swamphen, African

Swamphen, African

Porphyrio madagscariensis

Plover, Little Ringed

Plover, Little Ringed

Charadrius dubius

Heron, Striated

Heron, Striated

Butorides striata

Gull, Steppe

Gull, Steppe

Larus barabensis

Plover, Kentish

Plover, Kentish

Charadrius alexandrinus

Godwit, Bar-tailed

Godwit, Bar-tailed

Limosa lapponica

Duck, Tufted

Duck, Tufted

Aythya fuligula

Tern, Little

Tern, Little

Sterna albifrons

Tern, Sandwich

Tern, Sandwich

Sterna sandvicensis

Coot, Eurasian

Coot, Eurasian

Fulica atra

Wigeon, Eurasian

Wigeon, Eurasian

Anas penelope

Goose, Cotton Pygmy

Goose, Cotton Pygmy

Nettapus coromandelianus

Waterhen, White-breasted

Waterhen, White-breasted

Amaurornis phoenicurus

Duck, Ferruginous

Duck, Ferruginous

Aythya nyroca

Gull, Baltic

Gull, Baltic

Larus fuscus fuscus

Shelduck, Ruddy

Shelduck, Ruddy

Tadorna ferruginea

Cormorant, Socotra

Cormorant, Socotra

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis

Swamphen, Purple

Swamphen, Purple

Porphyrio porphyrio

Tern, White-winged

Tern, White-winged

Orychoprion leucopterus

Gull, Great Black-headed

Gull, Great Black-headed

Larus ichthyaetus

Tern, Saunder’s

Tern, Saunder’s

Sternula (albifrons) saudersi

Cormorant, Great

Cormorant, Great

Phalacrocorax carbo

Gadwall

Gadwall

Anas strepera

Stilt, Black-winged

Stilt, Black-winged

Himantopous himantopus

Crake, Little

Crake, Little

Porzana parva

Shoveler, Northern

Shoveler, Northern

Anas clypeata

Tern, White-cheeked

Tern, White-cheeked

Sterna repressa

Pochard, Red-crested

Pochard, Red-crested

Netta rufina

Tern, Gull-billed

Tern, Gull-billed

Gelochelidon nilotica

Goose, Egyptian

Goose, Egyptian

Alopochen aegyptiaca

Duck, Marbled

Duck, Marbled

Marmaronetta angustirostris

Crake, Spotted

Crake, Spotted

Porzana porzana


No animals for this kingdom in this ecosystem

No animals for this kingdom in this ecosystem
Diadema setosum

Diadema setosum

Diadema setosum

Doriopsilla nigrocera

Doriopsilla nigrocera

Doriopsilla nigrocera

Eurycarcinus orientalis

Eurycarcinus orientalis

Eurycarcinus orientalis

Grapsus albolineatus

Grapsus albolineatus

Grapsus albolineatus

Tubastrea coccinea

Tubastrea coccinea

Tubastrea coccinea

Indo-Pacific Sergeant

Indo-Pacific Sergeant

Abudefduf vaigiensis

Narrowbanded Spanish Mackerel

Narrowbanded Spanish Mackerel

Scomberomorus commerson

Goniobranchus annulatus

Goniobranchus annulatus

Goniobranchus annulatus

Thenus orientalis

Thenus orientalis

Thenus orientalis

Teira

Teira

Platax teira

Stichopus herrmanni

Stichopus herrmanni

Stichopus herrmanni

Acropora

Acropora

Pegasus volitans

Euretaster cribrosus

Euretaster cribrosus

Euretaster cribrosus

Sabellastarte spectabilis

Sabellastarte spectabilis

Sabellastarte spectabilis

Finless Sole

Finless Sole

Pardachirus marmoratus

Pearly Goatfish

Pearly Goatfish

Upeneus oligospilus

Entacmaea quadricolor

Entacmaea quadricolor

Entacmaea quadricolor

Portunus segnis

Portunus segnis

Portunus (Portunus) segnis

Hound Needlefish

Hound Needlefish

Tylosurus crocodilus

Smallscale Sandperch

Smallscale Sandperch

Parapercis robinsoni

Hydrophis lapemoides

Hydrophis lapemoides

Hydrophis lapemoides

Platygyra daedalea

Platygyra daedalea

Platygyra daedalea

Double-ended Pipefish

Double-ended Pipefish

Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus

Conus textile

Conus textile

Conus textile

Peronia peronii

Peronia peronii

Peronia peronii

Snubnose Pompano

Snubnose Pompano

Trachinotus blochii

Clypeaster humilis

Clypeaster humilis

Clypeaster humilis

Pentaceraster mammillatus

Pentaceraster mammillatus

Pentaceraster mammillatus

Blackspot Snapper

Blackspot Snapper

Lutjanus fulviflamma

Marbled Electric Ray

Marbled Electric Ray

Torpedo sinuspersici

Slender Weasel Shark

Slender Weasel Shark

Paragaleus randalli

Chelonia mydas

Chelonia mydas

Chelonia mydas

Pelamis platura

Pelamis platura

Pelamis platura

Jarbua Terapon

Jarbua Terapon

Terapon jarbua

Mangrove Red Snapper

Mangrove Red Snapper

Lutjanus argentimaculatus

Carpilius convexus

Carpilius convexus

Carpilius convexus

Panulirus versicolor

Panulirus versicolor

Panulirus versicolor

Ribbontail Stingray

Ribbontail Stingray

Taeniura lymma

Spangled Emperor

Spangled Emperor

Lethrinus nebulosus

Amphibalanus amphitrite

Amphibalanus amphitrite

Amphibalanus amphitrite

Ocypode rotundata

Ocypode rotundata

Ocypode rotundata

Smalltooth Emperor

Smalltooth Emperor

Lethrinus microdon

Zebra Shark

Zebra Shark

Stegostoma fasciatum

Acropora arabensis

Acropora arabensis

Acropora arabensis

Murex scolopax

Murex scolopax

Murex scolopax

Cleaner Wrasse

Cleaner Wrasse

Labroides dimidiatus

Sawtooth Barracuda

Sawtooth Barracuda

Sphyraena putnamae

Slender Sunfish

Slender Sunfish

Ranzania laevis

Macrophthalmus depressus

Macrophthalmus depressus

Macrophthalmus (Mareotis) depressus

Bowmouth Guitarfish

Bowmouth Guitarfish

Rhina ancyclostoma

Decorated Goby

Decorated Goby

Istigobius decoratus

White-spotted Spinefoot

White-spotted Spinefoot

Siganus canaliculatus

Lunella coronata

Lunella coronata

Lunella coronata

Common Seahorse

Common Seahorse

Hippocampus kuda

Indian Mackerel

Indian Mackerel

Rastrelliger kanagurta

Linckia guildingi

Linckia guildingi

Linckia guildingi

Reticulated Whipray

Reticulated Whipray

Himantura uarnak

Talang Queenfish

Talang Queenfish

Scomberoides commersonnianus

Leiaster leachi

Leiaster leachi

Leiaster leachi

Arabian Monocle Bream

Arabian Monocle Bream

Scolopsis ghanam

Longfin Bannerfish

Longfin Bannerfish

Heniochus acuminatus

Military Turkeyfish

Military Turkeyfish

Pterois miles

Gulf Parrotfish

Gulf Parrotfish

Scarus persicus

Orange Dottyback

Orange Dottyback

Pseudochromis aldabraensis

Undulated Moray

Undulated Moray

Gymnothorax undulatus

Holothuria atra

Holothuria atra

Holothuria atra

Dark Damsel

Dark Damsel

Pomacentrus aquilus

Golden Trevally

Golden Trevally

Gnathanodon speciosus

Goldstripe Sardinella

Goldstripe Sardinella

Sardinella gibbosa

Blackspotted Rubberlip

Blackspotted Rubberlip

Plectorhinchus gaterinus

Picasso Triggerfish

Picasso Triggerfish

Rhinecanthus assasi

Whipfin Silver-biddy

Whipfin Silver-biddy

Gerres filamentosus

Bartail Flathead

Bartail Flathead

Platycephalus indicus

Orangespotted Grouper

Orangespotted Grouper

Epinephelus coioides

Striped Eel Catfish

Striped Eel Catfish

Plotosus lineatus

Whaleshark

Whaleshark

Rhincodon typus

Whitespotted Grouper

Whitespotted Grouper

Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus

Gulf Blenny

Gulf Blenny

Ecsenius pulcher

Helmet Gurnard

Helmet Gurnard

Dactyloptena orientalis

Luther’s shrimpgoby

Luther’s shrimpgoby

Cryptocentrus lutheri

Flat Toadfish

Flat Toadfish

Colletteichthys dussumieri

Shortbodied Pipefish

Shortbodied Pipefish

Choeroichthys brachysoma

Persian Cardinalfish

Persian Cardinalfish

Cheilodipterus persicus

Broomtail Wrasse

Broomtail Wrasse

Cheilinus lunulatus

Milkfish

Milkfish

Chanos chanos

Dark Butterflyfish

Dark Butterflyfish

Chaetodon nigropunctatus

Blackfin Butterflyfish

Blackfin Butterflyfish

Chaetodon melapterus

Yellowfin Hind

Yellowfin Hind

Cephalopholis hemistiktos

Blacktip Reef Shark

Blacktip Reef Shark

Carcharhinus melanopterus

Bull Shark

Bull Shark

Carcharhinus leucas

Halfspotted Goby

Halfspotted Goby

Asterropteryxsemi punctata

Stellate Puffer

Stellate Puffer

Arothron stellatus

Arabian Pupfish

Arabian Pupfish

Aphanius dispar

Clark’s anemonefish

Clark’s anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii

Tailspot goby

Tailspot goby

Amblygobius albimaculatus

Ocellated Eagle Ray

Ocellated Eagle Ray

Aetobatus ocellatus

Sohal

Sohal

Acanthurus sohal

Twobar Seabream

Twobar Seabream

Acanthopagrus bifasciatus

Yellowtail Surgeonfish

Yellowtail Surgeonfish

Zebrasoma xanthurum

Yellowstriped Cardinalfish

Yellowstriped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus cyanosoma

Yellowbar Angelfish

Yellowbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus maculosus